/ Erithacus rubecula
/ أبو الحناء
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The European Robin belongs to the Muscicapidae family in the Passeriformes order.
It is 13.5-14.7 cm in size and 15-22 grams in weight. This short, stout bird with brownish upperparts and an orange-red throat and chest can't be mistaken for any other bird. The throat is usually surrounded by light gray feathers which are lighter on the bottom, and can even be white. Although there is a variation in physical characteristics among the various locations it inhabits in the world, the local population shows no variation. The juvenile has greenish-gold dotted plumage, but the chance of seeing a juvenile is short as they don't breed in this area, and arrive to winter here in adult-like plumage with a thin yellowish stripe on the wing. Their diet consists of fruit and insects with a preference for juicy reptiles and raspberries. They are usually heard before they are seen standing on a branch in the lower third of a bush or hopping on the ground looking for insects. The Robin is not very particular about its habitat but prefers woods and bushes with open spaces. The central European Robin prefers groves and pine forests, but it can be found among the bushes by streams and rivers, near small groups of trees, a large fruity bush, parks and urban gardens. The Robin is even more flexible in its choice of its winter "home", as it can be found in dryer areas. The Robin has a preference for cold climates but manages quite well with the temperate Mediterranean climate. The Robin breeds in north Turkey and the Caucasus Mountains, most of Europe and north-west Africa. They are stable in south and west Europe, but the rest of the populations are known to migrate. The Robin is known to winter in this area from October to March. In the spring most of the birds return to their breeding grounds. Since the 1980's more of these Robins have stayed during the summer, as well.
International conservation status: LC
Regional conservation status: LC
Migratory behaviour: Winter