Common Quail / Coturnix coturnix / فر (سمان شائع)

Picture Resource: By KaouroV - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, 

Status: Common

The Common Quail belongs to the Phasianidae family in the Galliformes order. It is 16-18 cm in size and 70-150 grams in weight. The Common Quail a small bird, similar to a small pheasant chick, with sandy brown coloring and dark brown upper parts. The upper parts and body sides are decorated with white stripes. The male's center throat is adorned with black feathers. It has relatively long wings, comparing to other species of the Galliformes order. The Common Quail feeds on seeds and insects on the ground and breeds in open arable farmlands and meadows. It can lay 8-13 eggs in one clutch. The amazing camouflage of the Common Quail and his hiding abilities makes it very difficult to spot. It's easier to notice it by hearing his call that sound like "bot, bot-bot ... bot, bot-bot ...". Even when a predator is near, it relies on its camouflage and freezes in its place or creeps away to hide. Only as a last resort it would fly into the air and then drop back to the ground and run for cover. Generally the Common Quail prefers to stay on the ground than fly. The weight of the Quail compared to its size is considered relatively heavy, and yet it is a migrating bird. The common Quails begin the autumn migration by walking their way to the southern regions of their distribution in Europe. Then they cross the Mediterranean towards Africa in only one night of active flight, in which they cross 700 km. When they land on the beaches of North Sinai and East Egypt exhausted, seeking refuge under desert plants, they are easy prey and unfortunately every year over a 1.5 million common Quails are hunted illegally. The distribution of the Common Quail is widespread over Europe and North-West of Africa.

Conservation status: least concern.

Migratory behaviour: Migration

Sites: Beitillu, Umm at-Tut, Wadi Al-Quff nature reserves